After the three steps mentioned (preparing the ground, assessing vulnerability, and setting the strategic direction), you should push forward agreements regarding climate change issues, design and implement action plans. The planning and implementation processes require constant monitoring.

Which options are relevant for acting?

First, you are able to formulate policy concerns through a general statement on specific sectors (e.g. social, economic) referring to climate change. These concerns do not offer a concrete plan of action.

However, the second step is to formulate policy recommendations (e.g. guiding principles) addressing a specific problem (e.g. avoiding conflicts between mitigation and adaptation).

Third, your policy decision sets plans (e.g. regional energy network plan) into action and makes them legally binding.

By earmarking a part of your regional financial budget to mitigation or adaptation options, you can tackle several climate related needs. However, prior to that you should already have explored a wide spectrum of adaptation and mitigation options for your region. Because of uncertainties and a broad range of potential climate change impacts in the future, you have to prioritize adaptation and mitigation options in your decision making processes.

The following links give you a quick overview of potential mitigation and adaptation measures mainly related to spatial planning and development according to different levels of action.

Regional planning level
General planning level
Detailed planning level

While the implementation takes place, a cross-cutting monitoring, evaluation and review of your decisions is very important. Because of ongoing scientific research outcomes and new policies (EU or national), decisions and processes may need to be re-assessed from time to time. The observation of policy decisions, structures and processes are absolutely essential. Also stakeholders (e.g. business, private sector) are changing, but nevertheless should be integrated into the decision making processes. This is important because they can support your decision making process and provide specific information about their regional and local business environment.

You are in a perpetual learning process supported by monitoring actions, and in this process you improve proceedings and find new opportunities. It is a dynamic process where decisions may need to be adjusted in order to be able to respond to climate change!