Policy makers
Spatial planners
Business people

General planning level

The most important planning aspects of climate change mitigation and adaptation on the general planning level are summarised in the table below. For each aspect it is indicated whether it deals with mitigation (M) or adaptation (A) of climate change. The most crucial planning aspects in the given level are underlined. On the right there are examples (in English) from general level planning cases collected in the BalticClimate project.


Local present and future climate

Minimising the risks of flood, landslides, erosion (A)
Planning efficient storm-water management (A)
Minimising the risks of heat waves (A)
Planning for wind protection, taking microclimate into account (A)
Analysing risks of soil frost damage to the infrastructure (A)

Compact and diverse structure

Using efficiently the existing area (M)
Using efficiently the existing infrastructure (M)
Building outside the existing structure should be questioned and considered carefully (M)
Planning different housing types (M, A)
Mixing the functions (M)
Giving priority to services and work places accessible by public transport (M)
Securing viable pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure (M)
Analysing the location of the area (M, A)
Identifying locations for supplemental building (M)
Utilising brownfields and old buildings (M)
Identifying opportunities for new technologies and architectural innovations (M, A)
Planning the infrastructure so that it also works in terms of future climate (A)


Minimising the need to travel (M)
Encouraging walking and cycling to everyday destinations (M)
Maximising the use of sustainable and integrated public transport (M)
Developing thematic plans for non-motorised traffic (M)
Developing mobility plans (M)
Creating solutions for pedestrian areas (M)
Creating solutions for high quality public spaces (M)
Optimising the size and dimensions of the infrastructure (M)
Reserving space for bicycle parking (M)


Identifying local energy needs within the present and future climate (M, A)
Planning energy production and consumption (M)
Promoting energy efficiency (M)
Planning energetically self-sufficient settlements and houses (M)
Minimising heat loss (M)
Planning efficient gray- and runoff water treatment (M)
Identifying and promoting sustainable and renewable energy sources (M)
Identifying areas suitable for production of renewable energy (M)
Creating solutions for decentralised renewable energy production (M)
Creating flexible solutions in buildings and areas (M, A)
Requiring environmentally friendly building materials (M)
Identifying local production (M)
Planning efficient waste and wastewater treatment (M)
Planning energy efficient lighting (M)

Comfortable environment

Securing and expanding green areas and parks (M, A)
Creating solutions for allotment gardens, community gardens (M, A)
Establishing urban ecosystem networks (M, A)
Designing corridors for cooling air and shielding from wind (A)


Participation of residents (M, A)
Participation of landowners and developers (M, A)
Participation of politicians (M, A)
Participation of climatologists and other scientists (M, A)
Participation of the media (M, A)

Strategic planning

Directing new settlement development (M, A)
Identifying strategic needs for the region – demographical, economical, environmental etc. aspects (M, A)
Identifying necessary changes/modifications in order to develop a more compact /functional area (M, A)
Development of the economy (M, A)
Development of the transport network – roads, rail etc. (M, A)

Planning costs

Impact Assessment (M, A)
Costs related to dispersed structure, lack of strategic guidance (M, A)
Costs related to soil quality, landscape which does not support compact structure (M, A)
Costs related to overestimated attractiveness of the area (M, A)
Costs related to many crossroads und underpasses (M, A)
Costs related to too many roads (M, A)

See also:

» Regional planning level
» Detailed planning level